Recent Articles

Below are the titles and abstracts from the most recent articles published in In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant. Click on the title to view the full article at Springerlink.

 

  • In vitro propagation and establishment of adventitious root cultures of Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meisn for quantification of emodin production
    on October 19, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Rheum emodi Wall. ex Meisn is an important medicinal herb used in treating type II diabetes mellitus, arthritis, inflammation, and fever. Roots and rhizomes of this plant possess anthraquinones showing anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcerogenic, immunosuppressive, and pro-apoptotic activities. In the present study, in vitro propagation and adventitious root establishment were achieved for the detection and quantification of important secondary metabolites. In micropropagation experiments, high rate of callus induction was obtained from mid rib (100%) as well as leaf explants (97.67 ± 1.20%). The highest percent shoot induction was observed from leaf explants (76.25 ± 2.39%) as compared to callus (66.67 ± 2.20%). Regenerated shoots showed 70% rooting response with healthy long roots (5.73 ± 0.15 cm). Adventitious root culture response from nodal and leaf explants was better in liquid medium (93.33 ± 1.67% and […]

  • Research on the release mechanism of glucoraphanin and sulforaphane mediated by methyl jasmonate in broccoli hairy roots
    on October 18, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a plant growth regulator, which plays an important role in signaling defense response and regulating plant secondary metabolism. Here, broccoli hairy roots growing for 18 d were treated with MeJA for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h, respectively. Compared with the 0 h control group, the content of glucoraphanin (GRA) and sulforaphane (SF) was increased under MeJA treatment for 3, 6, 9, and 12 h. The activity of myrosinase (MYR) was reduced in broccoli hairy roots. With the broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis L) genome as the reference genome, 4733 DEGs (differentially expressed genes) were detected in the hairy roots that were treated by MeJA for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h; among them, 1024 genes were upregulated and 3709 genes were downregulated. The pathway of “SNARE interaction in vesicular transport” (ko04130) was ranked 1st by KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of commonly upregulated differential genes at 0, 3, 6, 9, […]

  • Protocorm-like body formation, stem elongation, and enhanced growth of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Tropical’ plantlet on medium containing silver nanoparticles
    on October 12, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this study, a new method for shoot regeneration via protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) is described. Shoot proliferation using stem elongation under light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and enhanced growth of Anthurium andraeanum ‘Tropical’ plantlets on medium containing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was investigated. For shoot regeneration, the micropropagation efficiency via PLB formation was fourfold more efficient than directly from callus after 12 wk of culture. This was possible because each initial callus cluster could be cut into 20 explant slices (1 × 5 × 5 mm in size), each with an average of 42.67 PLBs which are capable of growing into plants. For shoot proliferation, single shoots with 2 cm in size derived from PLB culture were placed under different blue to red LED ratios. This study showed that higher shoot height (4.77 cm), fresh weight (327.33 mg), number of leaves per shoot (6.33), and the number of stem nodes per shoot (5.67 stem […]

  • High-frequency plant regeneration and genetic homogeneity assessment of regenerants by molecular markers in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)
    on October 12, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract A highly efficient and reproducible in vitro plant regeneration method has been developed from shoot bud, half-shoot, and shoot slice explants of four genotypes of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). The shoot slice explant produced the highest number of shoots (22.4 shoots explant−1) than half-shoot (18.6 shoots explant−1) and shoot bud explant (14.2 shoots explant−1) of Salem genotype on medium amended with 13.32 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 5.37 µM 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Salem genotype was more efficient among the four genotypes tested, followed by Duggirala Red, Prathibha, and PCT-13 genotypes. Approximately 80% of shoots were induced spontaneous rooting on shoot induction media fortified with NAA. The complete plantlets were obtained after rooting the shoots on a medium augmented with 4.90 µM Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). IBA was an efficient auxin to induce the maximum number of roots per shoot than Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and NAA. […]

  • Efficient in vitro organogenesis, micropropagation, and plumbagin production in Plumbago europaea L.
    on September 28, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this study, an efficient method for in vitro regeneration of Plumbago europaea was developed using direct and indirect organogenesis. Accordingly, micropropagation and regeneration were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The effects of explant type and plant growth regulators on shoot organogenesis of P. europaea were evaluated. For the nodal explants, MS medium containing 0.5 mg/l TDZ (11.62 shoots per node) was the best medium for high frequency of micropropagation. In comparison, the highest percentage of direct organogenesis (70%) and number of shoots per explants (14.6) were acquired for the internode explants using 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.1 mg/l IAA. The obtained data revealed that TDZ is the most effective cytokinin for the direct shoot organogenesis. The highest indirect organogenesis rate was observed using 2 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA for the internode […]

  • Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of purple raspberry (Rubus occidentalis × R. idaeus) with the PtFIT (FER-like iron deficiency–induced transcription factor 1) gene
    on September 28, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for the purple raspberry (R. occidentalis × R. idaeus) ‘Amethyst’ was developed. Using the system, the FER-like iron deficiency–induced transcription factor 1 gene cloned from Populus tremula (PtFIT) was expressed in transgenic raspberry plants. Effects of four inoculum densities and two co-cultivation times on ‘Amethyst’ transformation were tested in two separate experiments. Results showed that an average transformation frequency of 3.9% was achieved under the conditions of 25 mg L−1 kanamycin selection, 3-d co-cultivation, and OD600 0.3 to 0.55 inoculum density. A total of 12 PtFIT-transgenic lines of ‘Amethyst’ were verified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Expression of the PtFIT gene in transgenic lines was evaluated under the iron deficiency or sufficiency condition using the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR); however, the expression showed an inconsistent […]

  • Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) NCED1 gene enhances high salinity and cold tolerance in Arabidopsis
    on September 27, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the adaptive response to environmental stress. The rate-limiting step of ABA biosynthesis is the oxidative cleavage of cis-epoxide carotenoid catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED). In this study, the ORF sequence of RiNCED1 in raspberry fruit was isolated to study the function of this gene under abiotic stress. While RiNCED1 was induced by cold, high salinity, heat, and ABA, it highly expressed in new leaves using quantitative real-time PCR. The overexpression of RiNCED1 in Arabidopsis improved the content of ABA in transgenic plants both in high salt and cold conditions. This indicated that overexpressing of RiNCED1 increased the content of ABA in Arabidopsis, which proved that RiNCED1 was involved in ABA biosynthesis. Furthermore, overexpressing of RiNCED1 lead to higher chlorophyll content, higher proline content; higher peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) […]

  • In vitro propagation via organogenesis and formation of globular bodies of Salvia plebeia: a valuable medicinal plant
    on September 13, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract As a valuable medicinal plant, Salvia plebeia R. Brown (S. plebeia) belongs to the Lamiaceae family that has been subjected to over-exploitation in its natural habitat for phytochemical and pharmacological studies. The present study focuses on the development of a micropropagation protocol for sustainable propagation and conservation of S. plebeia. Direct organogenesis (from shoot tips and cotyledonary nodes explants) and globular bodies (GBs) induction (from hypocotyl explants) systems have been established in S. plebeia. Alternative collection methods need to be developed for the large-scale propagation of S. plebeia. In addition, roots as explants can also induce adventitious shoots via callus. The highest and number of regenerated shoots (7.0 ± 0.8) per shoot tips was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with a combination of 0.1 mg L−1 indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 1.0 mg L−1 6-benzyladenine (6-BA), the proliferation of […]

  • Micropropagation of Hibiscus moscheutos L. ‘Luna White’: effect of growth regulators and explants on nuclear DNA content and ploidy stability of regenerants
    on September 3, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Hibiscus moscheutos L., also known as hardy hibiscus, is valued for its medicinal and ornamental attributes. It is usually propagated via seeds or cuttings. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a dependable micropropagation for H. moscheutos ‘Luna White’. To that end, the effect of four explant types (leaf, root, node, shoot tip) and two growth regulators 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and meta-Topolin (mT) (6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino) purine) on in vitro growth of H. moscheutos was investigated. Genetic stability of the in vitro grown plants was assessed using flow cytometry, and chromosome count was investigated. No shoots were obtained from leaf or root explants. An efficient protocol for micropropagation of H. moscheutos using two explant types, 2-node and shoot tip explants, and two cytokinins (BA and mT) capable of producing true-to-type regenerants was established. Both BA and mT can be used at 2 μM or 4 μM using either 2-node or shoot tip […]

  • Shoot proliferation, embryogenic callus induction, and plant regeneration in Lepturus repens (G. Forst.) R. Br.
    on September 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Lepturus repens (G. Forst.) R. Br. is a perennial grass that grows on coral reef outcrops and sandy beaches and has drought tolerance and salt resistance. In this study, the internodes of L. repens were used as explants and cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 1.13 mg L−1 6-benzyladenine (BA) to successfully induce axillary shoots. Additional experimental results showed that cytokinins were a key factor for the successful induction and proliferation of shoots. BA induced 7.2 axillary shoots per explant, significantly more than kinetin (KIN), which induced 3.5 axillary shoots per explant. Shoots were proliferated more successfully on medium supplemented with 1.13 mg L−1 BA and a low concentration of 0.09 mg L−1 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) than BA alone. Shoot bases were used as explants for embryogenic callus induction and subsequent plant regeneration, which was possible on MS medium supplemented with 0.11 mg L−1 2,4-D, […]

  • Sodium nitroprusside: its beneficial role in drought stress tolerance of “Mexican lime” (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swingle) under in vitro conditions
    on August 24, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract As a novel antioxidant, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) can be used to reduce the adverse effects of various abiotic stresses, especially drought stress. Drought stress is a major problem in the vegetative and reproductive stages of “Mexican lime” (Citrus aurantifolia (Christ.) Swingle), which is known as a main horticultural plant. The aim of the current investigation was to study the impact of SNP on biochemical, morphological, and physiological characteristics of “Mexican lime” under drought stress in vitro condition. This study was performed as a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with four replications. Drought stress was induced by using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) in four levels (0, 1, 2, and 3%) in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium. To evaluate the effect of SNP in ameliorating drought stress, various concentrations (0, 25, 50, and 100 μM) of SNP were supplemented to MS medium. The results showed that drought stress […]

  • Methyl jasmonate elicits enhancement of bioactive compound synthesis in adventitious root co-culture of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea pallida
    on August 11, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Co-culture of adventitious roots (ARs) of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and E. pallida is a novel method for the production of Echinacea bioactive compounds. In the co-culture system, implementation of an elicitation strategy can likely promote bioactive compound accumulation in ARs. Therefore, in this work, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was tested as an elicitor to treat 30-d-old bioreactor cultured ARs and the effect of MeJA concentrations on metabolite accumulation to select an optimal concentration of this elicitor. Furthermore, the antioxidant enzyme activities of ARs were also determined for understanding the mechanism of MeJA elicitation. Results showed that the 25 μM MeJA treatment increased metabolite accumulation in ARs with maximum production of phenolics (728.2 mg L−1), flavonoids (622.2 mg L−1), and caffeic acid derivatives (255.3 mg L−1 cichoric acid and 143.9 mg L−1 echinacoside); however, the highest polysaccharide production […]

  • SIVB 2021: In Vitro OnLine, June 5 – 9, Virtual Meeting
    on August 9, 2021 at 12:00 am
  • Organogenesis, direct somatic embryogenesis, and shoot proliferation of Rheum spiciforme Royle: an endemic and vulnerable medicinal herb from Indian Trans Himalayas
    on August 6, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Rheum spiciforme Royle is a high value medicinal herb restricted to NW Himalayas. The medicinal properties of Rheum include anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, hepatoprotective, and immuno-enhancing. The species is threatened and endemic which demands its conservation. In this context, we have developed a premiere efficient in vitro regeneration system for this herb. The seed germination displayed phenomenal increase when transferred from soil (13.6 ± 3.1%) to half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (92.6 ± 1.3%) fortified with 0.005 mM gibberellic acid (GA3) and 1 mM potassium nitrate (KNO3) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) each with mean germination time (MGT) of 8.5 ± 1.8 d. Among four types of explants used for callusing, leaf explants responded highest with 87.3 ± 1.4% at 2 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) each. […]

  • Optimization of in vitro pollen germination and viability testing of some Australian selections of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) and their xenic and metaxenic effects on the tissue culture–derived female cultivar “Barhee”
    on August 5, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Information regarding efficient pollen viability testing methods and the most favourable pollen storage conditions for internationally important date palm cultivars is limited. No such information has been reported on Australian male selections. The in vitro pollen germination of three elite Australian male selections, “Big pod”, “Campbell” and “Tanunda”, was estimated using a modified Brewbaker and Kwack (BK) medium with combinations of various chemicals. Germination was maximized when 75 mg/l H3BO4, 400 mg/l Ca (NO3)2.4H2O, 100 mg/l KNO3, 50 mg/l MgSO4.7H2O and 15% (w/v) sucrose were used in a medium at pH 5.4. The viability of pollen of these three genotypes following storage in a refrigerator at 4°C was tested every 3 mo for 12 mo. Significant pollen viability was maintained after 9 mo of storage and the highest germinability (60.3%) was observed for the genotype “Tanunda”. Six tests for determining viability, including TTC […]

  • Gene editing in Brassica napus for basic research and trait development
    on August 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The genome of Brassica napus L. is the result of several polyploidization events that occurred during the history of B. napus. Due to its relatively short domestication history, diversity is relatively limited. An increasing number of loci in this crop’s genome have been gene-edited using various technologies and reagent delivery methods for basic research as well as for trait development. New alleles have been developed as edits in single, 2, 4, or more homologous loci in this important oilseed crop. This comprehensive review will summarize new alleles that have been developed as they relate to weed control, flowering, self-incompatibility, plant hormone biology, disease resistance, grain composition, and pod shatter reduction. These new alleles have significantly augmented our understanding of both plant growth and development for basic research as well as for their potential commercial impacts.

  • Liability for market disruption: challenges facing genetic editing in agriculture
    on August 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The road ahead, legally, for gene editing in agriculture has various barriers to entry emerging in overseas markets. The liability landscape in the USA could make such overseas trade barriers, when they disrupt trade, into billion-dollar liability lawsuits here in the USA. The recent Syngenta litigation over China disruption sets a high standard for seeking regulatory approval that many companies may find daunting. Given the high costs and delays that could now be associated with regulatory approval, the benefits of this technology could be denied to a waiting public. Unfounded fears and misguided notions of sustainability in agriculture, which exclude gene editing in agriculture, could also play a part in denying the benefits of this technology. These challenges could take a generation or longer to correct. Outreach to key stakeholders overseas might allow this technology to gain acceptance, if it can avoid the stigma often associated with “GMOs” in […]

  • Detection of genome edits in plants—from editing to seed
    on August 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Genome editing (also known as gene editing) employs a range of tools such as Meganucleases, Zinc Finger Nucleases, TALENs, and more recently CRISPR to make defined changes in genes, regulatory sequences, untranslated regions, or intergenic regions. It is increasingly being applied in plant science research and to improve plant varieties. The benefits of having effective detection tools begin with optimization of the genome editing process itself and continue with selection and characterization of tissue cultures and/or regenerated plants. Detection tools are also used throughout the breeding process, and for preparation of regulatory dossiers when required, as well as for seed production, and may be necessary for monitoring products in the marketplace. Detection and identification of genome edits employs a wide range of analytical approaches including PCR, digital PCR, and sequencing methods. This article examines the applicability of each category of […]

  • Current status and prospects of plant genome editing in Australia
    on August 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Plant genome editing, particularly CRISPR-Cas biotechnologies, has rapidly evolved and drawn enormous attention all around the world in the last decade. The cutting-edge technologies have had substantial impact on precise genome editing for manipulating gene expression, stacking gene mutations, and improving crop agronomic traits. Following the global trends, investigations on CRISPR-Cas have been thriving in Australia, especially in agriculture sciences. Importantly, CRISPR-edited plants, classified as SDN-1 organisms (SDN: site-directed nuclease), have been given a green light in Australia, with regulatory bodies indicating they will not be classified as a genetically modified organism (GMO) if no foreign DNA is present in an edited plant. As a result, genome-edited products would not attract the onerous regulation required for the introduction of a GMO, which could mean more rapid deployment of new varieties and products that could be traded freely in […]

  • Special Issue on Genome Editing
    on August 1, 2021 at 12:00 am
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