Recent Articles

Below are the titles and abstracts from the most recent articles published in In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant. Click on the title to view the full article at Springerlink.

 

  • In vitro strategies for the conservation of Indian medicinal climbers
    on May 29, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Climbers are plants with weak stems that require support to grow upright. This group of plants develops various climbing mechanisms, classified as tendrillar, twiners, scramblers, clinging, adhesive and woody climbers (lianas). Although climbers are predominantly angiosperms, some are ferns, and one gymnosperm member Gnetum is included in this category. The angiosperm families mainly composed of climbers include Cucurbitaceae, Convolvulaceae and Dioscoreaceae. India’s biodiversity includes two regions, the Western Ghats and the Eastern Himalayas. According to the Botanical Survey of India, of approximately 18,000 species of angiosperms in India, 8000 of them are medicinal plants and several of them are climbers. Many climbers are medicinally important and used as herbal remedies in traditional systems of Indian medicine, including Ayurveda, Sidha and Unani. Several active phytochemicals from different parts of these plants are isolated and used as […]

  • Highly efficient regeneration and medicinal component determination of Phellodendron chinense Schneid
    on May 26, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Phellodendron chinense Schneid is an important Chinese herb with berberine and phellodendrine in stems and leaves, but with little information available on in vitro culture of this species. Disinfection of explants in 75% alcohol for 45 s, sterilization in 0.1% HgCl2 for 20 min, and submersion in 1.0 mol L−1 gibberellin3 (GA3) solution for 24 h was the optimal condition for seed germination. Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA) in combination with 1.5 mg L−1 1-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) was optimal for callus induction. MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 6-BA was the appropriate medium for induction of adventitious shoots, and 1/2MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L−1 indole-3-butytric acid (IBA) and 0.5% active carbon was the optimal medium for root induction. The 15-d survival rate of regenerated […]

  • Effect of Cytokinins on In Vitro Propagation of Ajuga xylorrhiza Kit Tan (Critically Endangered), Endemic to Turkey
    on May 19, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Ajuga xylorrhiza Kit Tan is a rare endemic perennial species growing in the stony habitats in Southeastern Anatolia region, Turkey. An efficient and reproducible protocol has been developed for micropropagation of endangered Ajuga xylorrhiza. Shoots were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium, supplemented with various concentrations of 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP), thidiazuron (TDZ), and kinetin (Kin). The optimal shoot formation was with the medium containing 0.125 mg L−1 BAP (7.91 shoots per explant), and 0.25 mg L−1 Kin (4.9 shoots per explant) was recorded. The best result in terms of shoot length (3.43 to 3.63 cm) was obtained from the Kin treatments. Kin parameters were more effective on shoot length and multiple shoot production than BAP and TDZ. For rooting, regenerated shoots were transferred to 1/4 strength MS medium containing two different concentrations of indole acetic acid (IAA) and […]

  • Induction of growth and antioxidant defense mechanisms in Matricaria chamomilla L. callus by vibration
    on May 18, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Effect of sinusoidal vibration on the activity of some antioxidative enzymes, pigments, membrane stability, and total phenolic was investigated in callus tissues of Matricaria chamomilla L. Two calli sources were initiated from leaf and root explants, and different frequencies of sinusoidal vibration (0, 5, 10, 15, 50, and 100 Hz) for 3 min were applied to stimulate callus tissues of M. chamomilla. According to the obtained findings in two calli of Matricaria chamomilla, enhancement of growth by vibration was observed at 15 and 50 Hz. Improvement of growth by vibration can be explained by induction in protein, proline total phenol contents, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities, reduction in malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide levels. Carotenoid significantly augmented at 15 and 50 Hz frequencies. The electrophoresis profile showed different isoform patterns, and the intensity of bands was […]

  • Efficient Chromosome Doubling of an Interspecific Hybrid Dendrobium Stardust ‘Fire Bird’ by Treatment of Amiprofos-methyl to Protocorm-Like Body
    on May 9, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Dendrobium Stardust ‘Fire Bird’ is an interspecific hybrid between D. unicum and D. Ukon ‘Arai’ and is known to be sterile and prevents further breeding. Chromosome doubling is an essential method to increase the size of plant organs, such as flowers, and restore fertility of interspecific hybrids, which enables further breeding for ornamental traits. To induce chromosome doubling, the protocorm-like bodies (PLBs) of a given variety were treated in vitro for 6 to 48 h with 10 to 160 mg L−1 amiprofos-methyl (APM). Higher APM concentrations resulted in lower rates of survival of treated PLBs. Furthermore, subsequent growth of PLBs was hampered with prolonged APM treatment, although 10 and 20 mg L−1 APM was optimal for doubling chromosomes. Plantlets with a swollen and shorter stem were observed after the APM treatment and these plants were also chromosome-doubled and became a distinctive […]

  • Characterization of allotetraploids derived from protoplast fusion between navel orange and kumquat
    on May 7, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this study, we aimed to produce a citrus fruit with no seed and with edible peel. Therefore, the seedless Yoshida navel oranges (Citrus sinensis ‘Yoshida navel’) and Jangsil kumquat (Fortunella japonica) with edible peel were used as the starting materials. Since two varieties of different genera and different flowering periods would be difficult to crossbreed, protoplast fusion was conducted using the polyethylene glycol method. Yoshida navel orange and Jangsil kumquat were used as an embryogenic callus line and a mesophyll line, respectively. The regenerated plants were analyzed by flow cytometry to identify tetraploids, which were further evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, using simple sequence repeat markers specific for the nuclear and cytoplasmic organellar DNAs of the two parents, to confirm allotetraploids and cybrids. Sixteen allotetraploids were finally produced and characterized phenotypically for leaf morphology and fruit […]

  • The Arabidopsis AtAAE13 . 1 Gene Enhances Salt Stress Tolerance in Angiosperms and Gymnosperm Plant Cells
    on May 6, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The Arabidopsis malonyl-CoA synthetase gene AAE13.1 (AtAAE13.1) plays important roles in cell metabolism, plant growth and development, and environmental stress responses. However, function of AtAAE13.1 in NaCl stress tolerance is not determined yet. Cell suspension cultures of different plant species including rice (Oryza sativa L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and white pine (Pinus strobus L.) were transformed using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring pBI-AtAAE13.1. After confirmation of integration of the AtAAE13.1 gene into the genome by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Southern and northern blot analyses, NaCl stress tolerance was examined in AtAAE13.1 transgenic cells of O. sativa, G. hirsutum, and P. strobus. AtAAE13.1 expression enhanced NaCl stress tolerance by increasing cell viability and growth rate, decreasing lipid peroxidation, increasing the oxidation rate, and elevating the content of amino acids, glycolate, and […]

  • Comparative regeneration in six bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) varieties from immature and mature scutella for developing efficient and genotype-independent protocol prerequisite for genetic improvement of wheat
    on May 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Hexaploid bread wheat, being highly recalcitrant, has been difficult to regenerate in vitro which limits the use of transgenesis and genome editing for its agronomic improvement and functional genomics. We have studied the comparative in vitro regeneration in six most important wheat varieties, namely, HD-2967, PBW-343, WH-1105, PBW-550, DBW-17, and WL-711, using immature vs mature scutellum. The regeneration response of varieties PBW-550, DBW-17, and HD-2967 has not yet been reported. The mature and immature scutella cultured on MS medium containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) (2 mg l−1) or dicamba (6 mgl−1), respectively, and maltose (30 gl−1) under dark conditions developed calli which subsequently on transfer to modified MS medium with double concentration of NH4NO3, zeatin (5.0 mgl−1), dicamba (0.1 mgl−1), AgNO3 (2.0 mgl−1), CuSO4 (2.5 mgl−1), and sucrose […]

  • Using decellularized grafted leaves as tissue engineering scaffolds for mammalian cells
    on May 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Inadequate availability of organs and tissues for transplantation is a major problem. While offering an alternative, development of engineered tissue constructs containing a functional vascular network that allows delivery of nutrients and especially O2 remains a challenge. Using native vasculature, especially microvasculature, of a tissue or an organ offers potential to overcome this shortcoming. Decellularized animal organs retain the extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold and native vascular networks but are challenging to source. A low cost, more readily available, and consistent source of tissues and organs is required. We investigated a plant scaffold model that would mimic input (arterial)-output (venous) flow by grafting two Aptenia cordifolia leaves together with opposite facing petioles. The abaxial epidermis of the top leaf and the adaxial epidermis of the bottom leaf were removed; wounds were soaked for 20 s in 0.1-mg L−1 […]

  • Soybean androgenesis I: identification of pyramidal stressors in anther cultures that sustain cell divisions and putative embryo formation from isolated microspore cultures
    on April 27, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the most complete food crops and has fed people and livestock since its domestication. Soybean androgenesis has been a challenging process yet to be advanced significantly. There have been minor advances, e.g., reports of a 2% induction rate in anther culture, formation of roots, rare shoots, but few plantlets and these did not survive to maturity. This research attempted to identify pyramidal stressors (the combination of temperature shock and incubation conditions) for soybean androgenesis using anther cultures. The results across genotypes Jack, Thorne, Williams 82 and IAS-5 indicated that androgenesis can be stimulated up to 9 to 12% induction frequency by the use of 10°C day/8°C night for 3 d then 4°C overnight dark pretreatment of donor plants, a series of incubation temperatures from 11°C to 18°C to 25°C, and nitrogen starvation medium. The adaptation of the anther culture […]

  • Impacts of photoautotrophic, photomixotrophic, and heterotrophic conditions on the anatomy and photosystem II of in vitro -propagated Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Sm. (Bromeliaceae)
    on April 27, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In vitro culture conditions have a major impact on the physiology and anatomy of micropropagated plants. Sucrose plays a very important role in micropropagation protocols, and is frequently employed during in vitro culture. However, it may induce disorders that negatively interfere with plant growth and development, such as a low photosynthetic rates. The aim of this study was to analyze the impacts of in vitro conditions on the anatomy and photosynthetic performance of Aechmea blanchetiana (Baker) L.B. Sm. Plants previously grown in vitro were transferred to culture media containing 0, 15, 30, or 45 g L−1 sucrose. Two different culture container sealing systems were tested: lids with a filter (permitted gas exchange), and with a PVC-covered filter (blocking fluent gas exchange). Plants grown with exogenous sucrose displayed anatomical traits that could decrease mineral and carbohydrate uptake from the medium. Plants cultured under […]

  • Influence of explant types, non-embryogenic synseed and reduced oxygen environment on in vitro conservation of Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst
    on April 17, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The effect of using encapsulated shoot tips (ST) and nodal segment (NS) explants, in combination with mineral oil (MO) overlay, for in vitro regeneration and efficient midterm conservation of Bacopa monnieri (IC468878), a medicinal herb with potent nervine properties is described. On a standard multiplication medium [Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing 0.2 mg l−1 benzyladenine (BA)] after 8 wk of culture, the number of shoots regenerated from ST (17.50 ± 0.50) to NS (19.10 ± 1.20) were not significantly different; however, the shoot length regenerated from NS (7.30 ± 0.70 cm) was significantly higher than ST (2.50 ± 0.30 cm). Encapsulation of ST explants did not have any significant effect on the number of shoots (18.10 ± 1.00) and shoot length (3.50 ± 0.30 cm), while there was significant decrease […]

  • The effects of illumination, temperature and 6-benzylaminoprine on asymbiotic seed germination and protocorm development in vitro in the achlorophyllous orchid Gastrodia pubilabiata Sawa
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We examined the effects of culture conditions, namely, illumination, temperature and the addition of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) to the germination medium, on the asymbiotic germination of mature seeds of Gastrodia pubilabiata Sawa, an achlorophyllous orchid. Mature seeds were harvested from plants at two sites, one in Toyama Prefecture and one in Chiba Prefecture, Japan. We used gellan gum-solidified New Dogashima medium as the basal medium. The maximum frequency of germination of the seeds in darkness was approximately 65%. BAP had no stimulatory effect on seed germination, but accelerated protocorm development. Necessary conditions for successful germination of seeds and subsequent development of seedlings from mature seeds of Gastrodia pubilabiata clarified in this study are prerequisites not only for conservation of biodiversity but also for the elucidation of the life cycle of this achlorophyllous orchid.

  • Euclidean distance can recognize the Biojas ® concentration that produces the ideal physiological status of pineapple in vitro plantlets
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Biojas® is a fermented broth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae, a jasmonic acid–producing fungus characterized as a plant growth regulator and as biological control of phytopathogenic microorganisms and pests. The present work describes the use of Biojas® in in vitro culture of pineapple. On the other hand, plant scientists usually record multiple indicators in their experiments. The common statistical data evaluations involve univariate analyses such as t test, Mann-Whitney, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s HSD. Such analyses do not evaluate integrally the effects of the experimental treatments because each indicator is analyzed independently. For this reason, we explored in this study the Euclidean distance combined with the data of the Biojas® treatment (0–2 mg l−1) on pineapple in vitro plantlets as an integrating indicator. Plant height; number of leaves; D leaf length, width, and area; […]

  • Effects of culture medium composition and PEG on hyperhydricity in Dendrobium officinale
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder during plant tissue culture that seriously affects regeneration and micropropagation. In this study, Dendrobium officinale plantlets were cultured on solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with plant growth regulators and various concentrations of sucrose, agar, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 to explore the effect of osmotic stress on hyperhydricity. The results show that low concentrations of sucrose or agar, as well as PEG-6000 at various concentrations, significantly increase the hyperhydric rate of D. officinale, whereas high concentrations of sucrose or agar did not. Furthermore, high concentrations of PEG-6000 significantly increase total water content, free-water content, relative electrical conductivity, and peroxidase (POD) activity of D. officinale plantlets, whereas they significantly decrease bound-water content, proline content, soluble protein content, soluble sugar content, and […]

  • Harvest time–related changes in biomass, phenolics and antioxidant potential in Knautia sarajevensis shoot cultures after elicitation with salicylic acid and yeast
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Elicitation is one of the effective methods for enhancement of metabolite production in plants. In this study we evaluated for the first time how elicitors affect biomass and phenolic production and antioxidant potential in relation to type (salicylic acid and yeast extract) and concentration of the elicitor and harvesting time in Knautia sarajevensis. Biomass production was estimated according to the control plants cultivated in liquid MS medium without eliciting agents. Total phenol, flavonoid and flavanol contents were estimated along with antioxidant activities at different harvesting times (0, 3, 7 and 15 d post-elicitation). The differences of phenolic metabolites were analysed by HPLC-UV for all treatments at all harvesting times. The best eliciting effect was recorded after 7 d by using 100 mM salicylic acid. Secondary metabolite profile analysis showed a significant increase in the content of rosmarinic acid, as well as chlorogenic and salicylic […]

  • Genome-wide analysis of ACO and ACS genes in pear ( Pyrus ussuriensis )
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The “Nanguo” pear is a typically climacteric fruit and ethylene is the main factor controlling the ripening process of climacteric fruit. Ethylene biosynthesis has been studied clearly and ACC synthase (ACS) is the rate-limited enzyme. ACO (ACC oxidase) is another important enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis. By exploring the pear genome, we identified 13 ACS genes and 11 ACO genes, respectively, and their expression patterns in fruit and other organs were investigated. Among these genes, 11 ACS and 8ACO genes were expressed in pear fruits. What’s more, 4 ACS and 3ACO genes could be induced by Ethephon and inhibited by 1-MCP treatment. This study is the first time to explore ACS and ACO genes at genome-wide level and will provide new data for research on pear fruit ripening.

  • Modifying sugarcane mineral levels through sodium chloride and mannitol exposure in temporary immersion bioreactors
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Temporary immersion bioreactors (TIBs) have been shown to be useful for studying plant stress physiology and inducing chemical mutagenesis. This study describes the effects of exposure to NaCl (salt stress) and mannitol (osmotic stress) within TIB on sugarcane mineral levels in vitro. Shoots were exposed to concentration of NaCl (89.4 mM) and mannitol (123.1 mM) previously shown to result in a 50% reduction in multiplication rate for 30 d. Thereafter, shoot multiplication rate, shoot cluster fresh weight, and levels of selected minerals were measured. Using ICP-OES, the following minerals were quantified: Na, Ga, Mn, Cr, K, Zn, Ca, Li, Mg, Sr, Co, B, Fe, S, P, Al, Ba, and N. Both NaCl and mannitol decreased shoot multiplication by c. 53% and except for Al and Ba altered mineral levels significantly relative to the control: Na accumulation increased markedly (six-fold in NaCl treatment); levels of Ga, Mn, Cr, K, and Zn changed moderately; Ca, […]

  • The effect of endophytic bacteria on in vitro shoot growth of Prunus yedoensis and its identification and elimination
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Tissue cultures of Prunus yedoensis, a famous ornamental tree species, are important to mass-propagate true-to-type plants. Within in vitro cultures, bacterial contamination of explants hinders the propagation of sustainable cultures. Negative effects of endophytic bacteria vary from leaf yellowing to shoot-tip necrosis, ultimately resulting in shoot death. Explants with an overgrowth of endophytic bacteria on basal parts showed inferior growth than explants with no bacterial growth. Shoot growth and contamination became severe as the shoots were subcultured. Two endophytic bacteria, Pantoea spp. and Curtobacterium spp., were identified from the in vitro shoots using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics was screened using different antibiotics. Two antibiotics, cefotaxime and tetracycline, effectively controlled bacteria growth. Although both antibiotics killed the bacteria, tetracycline adversely affected plant growth by […]

  • Phytochemical, biochemical, and growth changes in response to salinity in callus cultures of Nigella sativa L.
    on April 1, 2020 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is considered as a noteworthy herbal medicine. However, no study has been conducted on the physiological adaptive mechanism of it to salinity stress, especially under in vitro condition. To this aim, the callus cultures of ten different genotypes of N. sativa were applied to evaluate the changes occurring in biochemical traits under salinity stress. The calluses were exposed to the in vitro salt stress using different sodium chloride concentrations (0, 84, and 250 mM). A reduction occurred in the content of K+ and callus growth by enhancing the NaCl concentration. However, most of the content of Na+ (4 mgg− 1 DW), malondialdehyde (1.38 μmolg− 1 FW), total phenolic content (1.18 mg GAEg−1 FW), thymol (25.26 mgg− 1 DW), total flavonoids content (0.06 mg QEg− 1 FW), total flavonols (TFL) content (0.023 mg QEg− 1 FW), […]


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