Recent Articles

Below are the titles and abstracts from the most recent articles published in In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plant. Click on the title to view the full article at Springerlink.

 

  • Does electrifying organic synthesis pay off? The energy efficiency of electro-organic conversions
    on December 10, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The electrification of organic syntheses is a vividly growing research field and has attracted tremendous attention by the chemical industry. This review highlights aspects of electrosynthesis that are rarely addressed in other articles on the topic: the energy consumption and energy efficiency of technically relevant electro-organic syntheses. Four examples on different scales are outlined. Electro-organic synthesis has experienced a renaissance within the past years. This review addresses the energy efficiency or energy demand of electrochemically driven transformations as it is a key parameter taken into account by, for example, decision makers in industry. The influential factors are illustrated that determine the energy efficiency and discussed what it takes for an electrochemical process to be classified as “energy efficient.” Typical advantages of electrosynthetic approaches are summarized and […]

  • Individual thermal comfort prediction using classification tree model based on physiological parameters and thermal history in winter
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Individual thermal comfort models based on physiological parameters could improve the efficiency of the personal thermal comfort control system. However, the effect of thermal history has not been fully addressed in these models. In this study, climate chamber experiments were conducted in winter using 32 subjects who have different indoor and outdoor thermal histories. Two kinds of thermal conditions were investigated: the temperature dropping (24–16 °C) and severe cold (12 °C) conditions. A simplified method using historical air temperature to quantify the thermal history was proposed and used to predict thermal comfort and thermal demand from physical or physiological parameters. Results show the accuracies of individual thermal sensation prediction was low to about 30% by using the PMV index in cold environments of this study. Base on the sensitivity and reliability of physiological responses, five local skin temperatures (at hand, calf, head, arm […]

  • Analysis of a pseudo-parabolic equation by potential wells
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this paper, we consider a pseudo-parabolic equation, which was studied extensively in recent years. We generalize and extend the existing results in the following three aspects. First, we consider the vacuum isolating phenomenon with the initial energy \(J(u_0)\) satisfying \(J(u_0)\le 0\) and \(0<J(u_0)<d\) , respectively, where d is a positive constant denoting the potential well depth. By means of potential well method, we find that there are two explicit vacuum regions which are annulus and ball, respectively. Second, we study the asymptotic behaviors of the solutions and the energy functional. Generally speaking, we establish the exponential decay of the solutions and energy […]

  • Hardy–Sobolev–Maz’ya inequalities for polyharmonic operators
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Let K be affine, that is, \(K=\{z=(x,y)\in {\mathbb {R}}^{n+m}: y_{1}=\cdots =y_{m}=0\}\) . We compute the sharp constant of Hardy inequality related to the distance d(z, K) for polyharmonic operator. Moreover, we show that there exists a constant \(C>0\) such that for each \(u\in C^{\infty }_{0}({\mathbb {R}}^{n+m}\setminus K)\) , there holds $$\begin{aligned} \int _{{\mathbb {R}}^{n+m}}|\nabla ^{k} u|^{2}\mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y-c_{m,k}\int _{{\mathbb {R}}^{n+m}}\frac{u^{2}}{|y|^{2k}}\mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y\ge C\left( \int _{{\mathbb {R}}^{n+m}}|y|^{\gamma }|u|^{p}\mathrm{d}x\mathrm{d}y\right) ^{\frac{n+m-2k}{n+m}}, \end{aligned}$$ […]

  • Black phosphorus quantum dots: A new-type of water-based high-efficiency lubricant additive
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Black phosphorus quantum dots (BPQDs), obtained via a typical solution-based top-down method, were used as water-based lubricant additives. BPQDs exhibited remarkable friction reduction and anti-wear properties even at the ultra-low concentration of 0.005 wt%, which reduced the friction coefficient and wear volume of the base liquid by 32.3% and 56.4%, respectively. In addition, the load-supporting capacity of the base liquid increased from 120 N to over 300 N. BPQDs-based additives exhibited a relatively long lifetime at a relatively high load of 80 N. The performance of BPQDs considerably exceeded that of the BP; this may be attributed to their small and uniform particle size, good dispersion stability in water, and high reactivity at the frictional surfaces. The results of the surface wear resistance analysis demonstrated that a robust tribochemical film with a thickness of approximately 90 nm was formed on the rubbing surface lubricated with 0.005 wt% […]

  • Does laser surface texturing really have a negative impact on the fatigue lifetime of mechanical components?
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Laser surface texturing (LST) has been proven to improve the tribological performance of machine elements. The micro-scale patterns manufactured by LST may act as lubricant reservoirs, thus supplying oil when encountering insufficient lubrication. However, not many studies have investigated the use of LST in the boundary lubrication regime, likely due to concerns of higher contact stresses that can occur with the increasing surface roughness. This study aims to examine the influence of LST on the fatigue lifetime of thrust rolling bearings under boundary lubrication. A series of periodic patterns were produced on the thrust rolling bearings, using two geometrically different designs, namely cross and dimple patterns. Base oil ISO VG 100 mixed with 0.05 wt% P of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) was supplied. The bearings with cross patterns reduce the wear loss by two orders of magnitude. The patterns not only retain lubricant in the textured pockets but […]

  • Role of titanium carbide and alumina on the friction increment for Cu-based metallic brake pads under different initial braking speeds
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract To understand the effect of abrasives on increasing friction in Cu-based metallic pads under different braking speeds, pad materials with two typical abrasives, titanium carbide (TiC) and alumina (Al2O3), were produced and tested using a scale dynamometer under various initial braking speeds (IBS). The results showed that at IBS lower than 250 km/h, both TiC and Al2O3 particles acted as hard points and exhibited similar friction-increasing behavior, where the increase in friction was not only enhanced as IBS increased, but also enhanced by increasing the volume fraction of the abrasives. However, at higher IBS, the friction increase was limited by the bonding behavior between the matrix and abrasives. Under these conditions, the composite containing TiC showed a better friction-increasing effect and wear resistance than the composite containing Al2O3 because of its superior particle-matrix bonding and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) compatibility. […]

  • Vector bundles on rational homogeneous spaces
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We consider a uniform r-bundle E on a complex rational homogeneous space X and show that if E is poly-uniform with respect to all the special families of lines and the rank r is less than or equal to some number that depends only on X, then E is either a direct sum of line bundles or unstable with respect to some numerical class of a line. So we partially answer a problem posted by Muñoz et al. (Eur J Math 6:430–452, 2020). In particular, if X is a generalized Grassmannian \({\mathcal {G}}\) and the rank r is less than or equal to some number that depends only on X, then E splits as a direct sum of line bundles. So we improve the main theorem of Muñoz et al. (J Reine Angew Math (Crelles J) 664:141–162, 2012, Theorem 3.1) when X is a generalized Grassmannian. Moreover, by calculating the relative tangent bundles between two rational homogeneous spaces, we give […]

  • Remarks on parabolic De Giorgi classes
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We make several remarks concerning properties of functions in parabolic De Giorgi classes of order p. There are new perspectives including a novel mechanism of propagating positivity in measure, the reservation of membership under convex composition, and a logarithmic type estimate. Based on them, we are able to give new proofs of known properties. In particular, we prove local boundedness and local Hölder continuity of these functions via Moser’s ideas, thus avoiding De Giorgi’s heavy machinery. We also seize this opportunity to give a transparent proof of a weak Harnack inequality for nonnegative members of some super-class of De Giorgi, without any covering argument.

  • A novel point source oxygen supply method for sleeping environment improvement at high altitudes
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The hypoxic environment at high altitudes causes various sleep disorders. Diffuse oxygen enrichment is an effective way to alleviate sleep disorders and improve the built environment in high altitude areas. In this study, a novel point source local diffuse oxygen supply method was proposed to improve the sleeping oxygen environment. The oxygen supply performance was investigated by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method including the oxygen concentration and air velocity distributions. A sleeping experiment was conducted on the plateau to validate the CFD model. The occupied zone including the inhalation zone and the active zone was defined. The results showed that the oxygen concentration showed a rapid rise, then decreased slowly, and finally tended to be stable. The oxygen concentration after stabilization was remarkably influenced by indoor ventilation rate. The sleeping environment’s improvement was examined considering the oxygen enrichment […]

  • An efficient three-dimensional foil structure model for bump-type gas foil bearings considering friction
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract This paper presents an efficient three-dimensional (3D) structural model for bump-type gas foil bearings (GFBs) developed by considering friction. The foil structures are modeled with a 3D shell finite element model. Using the bump foil mechanical characteristics, the Guyan reduction and component mode synthesis methods are adopted to improve computational efficiency while guaranteeing accurate static responses. A contact model that includes friction and separation behaviors is presented to model the interactions of the bump foil with the top foil and bearing sleeve. The proposed structural model was validated with published analytical and experimental results. The coupled elastohydrodynamics model of GFBs was established by integration of the proposed structural model with data on hydrodynamic films, and it was validated by comparisons with existing experimental results. The performance of a bearing with an angular misalignment was studied numerically, […]

  • Correction to: Thermal hydraulic considerations of nuclear reactor systems: Past, present and future challenges
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    The article “Thermal hydraulic considerations of nuclear reactor systems: Past, present and future challenges” written by Guan Heng Yeoh, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 08 April 2019 without open access. After publication in Volume 1, Issue 1, page 3–27, the author(s) decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2020 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  • Fundamental study on chaotic transition of two-phase flow regime and free surface instability in gas deaeration process
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Deaeration is a process of eliminating aspirated air from liquid in hydraulic reservoirs to avoid cavitation in the downstream pump blades. The complex fluid dynamics associated with deaeration is investigated. The three-dimensional buoyancy driven chaotic behavior of gas-liquid interfacial two-phase flow is studied. Parametric study is executed to understand change in internal flow physics (bubble coalescence, disintegration, horizontal spread, bubble velocity etc.), strength of accelerating Rayleigh-Taylor instability, turbulent kinetic energy, amplitude of upward velocity near free surface, and rise in free surface level with the variation of parameters like incoming mixture flow rate, incoming volume fraction of air, liquid fill depth, and Atwood number. The computations show increment in cavitation, wavenumber and amplitude of upward velocity towards oscillating free surface with incoming flow rate (Re). Cavitation and free surface instability show […]

  • Construction of projective special Kähler manifolds
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In this paper, we present an intrinsic characterisation of projective special Kähler manifolds in terms of a symmetric tensor satisfying certain differential and algebraic conditions. We show that this tensor vanishes precisely when the structure is locally isomorphic to a standard projective special Kähler structure on \(\mathrm {SU}(n,1)/\mathrm {S}(\mathrm {U}(n)\mathrm {U}(1))\) . We use this characterisation to classify 4-dimensional projective special Kähler Lie groups.

  • Penetration and lubrication evaluation of vegetable oil with nanographite particles for broaching process
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract With increasing environmental concerns, the substitution of mineral oil-based cutting fluid has become an urgent issue. Using vegetable soybean oil as base fluid, nanofluid cutting fluids (NFCFs) were prepared by adding different weight concentrations of nanographite particles (NGPs), and their penetration and lubrication performances were studied. A novel simulated tool-chip slit with micrometer-sized geometry was manufactured to evaluate and quantify the penetration rate of the NFCFs by image analysis approach. Moreover, a large number of comparative experiments on the closed-type broaching machine were carried out to compare the performance of the proposed NFCFs and a commercial cutting fluid in terms of cutting force, workpiece surface roughness, and metal chip. It is found that there is an optimal NGP concentration in NFCF for practical cutting applications. When the concentration of NGP is 0.4 wt%, the broaching process lubrication exhibits an ideal […]

  • Correction to: From indoor exposure to inhaled particle deposition: A multiphase journey of inhaled particles
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    The article “From indoor exposure to inhaled particle deposition: A multiphase journey of inhaled particles” written by Kiao Inthavong, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 22 October 2019 without open access. After publication in Volume 2, Issue 2, page 59–78, the author(s) decided to opt for Open Choice and to make the article an open access publication. Therefore, the copyright of the article has been changed to © The Author(s) 2020 and the article is forthwith distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, duplication, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

  • An exploration of frictional and vibrational behaviors of textured deep groove ball bearing in the vicinity of requisite minimum load
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In case of lightly loaded radial ball bearings, failure mechanisms other than fatigue such as smearing of raceways due to increased frictional torque and vibrations often prevail. Hence, attempts have been made herein for reducing the frictional torque and minimizing the vibrations of a radial deep groove ball bearing employing surface textures at the inner race. Nanosecond pulsed laser was used to create texture (involving micro-dimples having different dimple area density) on the inner race of test bearings. Using an in-house developed test rig, frictional torque and vibrational parameters were measured at different speeds and light loads (i.e. in vicinity of 0.01C, where C is dynamic load capacity of radial ball bearing). Significant reduction in frictional torque and overall vibrations were found in the presence of micro-dimples on inner race at light loads irrespective of operating speeds. Even without satisfying the minimum load needed criteria for […]

  • Thermal comfort in winter incorporating solar radiation effects at high altitudes and performance of improved passive solar design—Case of Lhasa
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The solar incidence on an indoor environment and its occupants has significant impacts on indoor thermal comfort. It can bring favorable passive solar heating and can result in undesired overheating (even in winter). This problem becomes more critical for high altitudes with high intensity of solar irradiance, while received limited attention. In this study, we explored the specific overheating and rising thermal discomfort in winter in Lhasa as a typical location of a cold climate at high altitudes. First, we evaluated the thermal comfort incorporating solar radiation effect in winter by field measurements. Subsequently, we investigated local occupant adaptive responses (considering the impact of direct solar irradiance). This was followed by a simulation study of assessment of annual based thermal comfort and the effect on energy-saving potential by current solar adjustment. Finally, we discussed winter shading design for high altitudes for both solar […]

  • Improvement of the lubrication properties of grease with Mn3O4/graphene (Mn3O4#G) nanocomposite additive
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Although grease can effectively lubricate machines, lubrication failure may occur under high speed and heavy load conditions. In this study, Mn3O4/graphene nanocomposites (Mn3O4#G) were synthetized using a hydrothermal method as lubricant additives. The lubrication properties of compound grease with Mn3O4#G nanocomposite additive under heavy contact loads of 600–900 N (3.95–4.59 GPa) were investigated. First, the nanocomposites were dispersed into L-XBCEA 0 lithium grease via successive electromagnetic stirring, ultrasound vibration, and three-roll milling. Compound grease with additives of commercial graphene (Com#G) was also investigated for comparison. Tribological test results revealed that the trace amounts of Mn3O4#G (as low as 0.02 wt%) could reduce the coefficient of friction (COF) of grease significantly. When the concentration of Mn3O4#G was 0.1 wt%, the COF and wear depth were 43.5% and 86.1%, lower than those of pure graphene, respectively. […]

  • The effects of portable cooling systems on thermal comfort and work performance in a hot environment
    on December 1, 2021 at 12:00 am

    Abstract There are some special spaces in which there is no air conditioning or the people are in move, thus exposing people to a hot environment. In this study, portable cooling systems were proposed and their effects on thermal comfort and work performance were investigated at an air temperature of 32 °C. Four conditions were established: cool air towards breathing zone (A), chest and back cooling (B), combined cooling (C) and no cooling (D). Twenty-eight subjects were exposed to the four conditions in a counterbalanced order. During each exposure they performed tasks and made subjective assessments, while multiple physiological parameters were measured. Compared with no cooling (D), cool air towards breathing zone (A) and chest and back cooling (B) improved work performance by 17.5% and 19.25%, respectively, while decreased the subjects’ thermal sensation, skin temperature, and heart rate. When the two cooling systems were combined (C), larger improvements in […]

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