Recent Articles

Below are the titles and abstracts from the most recent articles published in In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Animal. Click on the title to view the full article at Springerlink.


  • Adventitious root cultures of Oplopanax elatus inhibit LPS-induced inflammation via suppressing MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways
    on September 16, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Bioreactor-cultured adventitious roots (ARs) of the endangered medicinal plant Oplopanax elatus Nakai is a novel alternative plant material. To utilize ARs in the product production, the present study investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of O. elatus ARs. In the in vivo experiment, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury disease model was established and several inflammatory indexes were determined. For the LPS-stimulated mice, after pretreatment of AR crude extract (200 mg/kg), cell infiltration in lungs was decreased, the production of proinflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6, and 1β in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was evidently reduced, which indicated that O. elatus ARs had an anti-inflammatory effect. In the in vitro experiment, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions (12.5, 25, and 50 μg/mL) were used to treat LPS-induced peritoneal macrophages […]

  • A clonal stem cell line established from a mouse mammary placode with ability to generate functional mammary glands
    on September 16, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The mammary gland develops from the placode at ectodermal invagination. The rudimentary parenchyma (mammary bud) develops mammary trees and alveolar structures, suggesting that the mammary bud consists of stem/progenitor cells. Here, we established a clonal stem cell line from a mammary bud of a p53 null female embryo at day 14.5. FP5-3-1 line was a homogeneous cell population with polygonal epithelial morphology and spontaneously became heterogeneous during passages. Recloning gave rise to four sublines; three sublines have basal epithelial property and one subline has luminal epithelial property. The former sublines generate functional mammary glands when injected into cleared fat pads and the latter subline does not. The cell lines also express many stemness-related genes. The clonal cell lines established in the present study are shown to be mammary stem cells and not tumorigenic. They provide useful models for normal and tumor biology of the mammary […]

  • Cytokine response after stimulation of culture cells by zinc and probiotic strain
    on September 13, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Intestinal porcine epithelial cells were used for an in vitro analysis of mRNA expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IL-18) and transcriptional factors (MyD88 and NF-κβ). Cells were exposed to inorganic and organic zinc sources (in two different concentrations—50 μmol/L and 100 μmol/L) alone or combined with Lactobacillus reuteri B6/1, which was also applied individually. The total exposure time was 4 h. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR was used to determine expression levels of the aforementioned parameters. In general, upregulation was observed; however, a decrease of some mRNA’s abundance was also determined. Differences in expression were analysed statistically using ANOVA and Tukey analyses. High relative expression was shown for IL-8, IL-18 and MyD88 in groups treated with 100 μmol/L of inorganic sources of zinc (ZnSO4) (p < 0.05), while groups treated with the […]

  • ATRA induces the differentiation of hepatic progenitor cells by upregulating microRNA-200a
    on September 12, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) are potential seed cells for hepatocyte transplantation treatment of liver diseases. ATRA can induce the differentiation and mature function of hepatic progenitor cells, but the mechanism is still poorly understood. Here, by using microRNA array to analyze the expression profiles of microRNA (miR), we found that miR-200 family molecules in HPCs were upregulated after ATRA treatment, especially miR-200a-3p, 200c-3p, and 141-3p. ATRA induction could downregulate the expression of hepatic stem markers Oct4 and AFP, and improve the expression of hepatic markers ALB, CK18, and TAT, and the activity of ALB-GLuc, as well as indocyanine green uptake and glycogen storage function of HPCs. These above effects of ATRA on HPC differentiation were almost inhibited by blocking of miR-200a-3p, but not miR-200c-3p and 141-3p using antagomir. Cell autophagy is associated with ATRA regulation in HPCs, compared with control group, the expression […]

  • Angiotensin II induces apoptosis of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells via regulating PTP1B/PI3K/Akt pathway
    on September 9, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Endothelial cell apoptosis and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activation are the major pathological mechanisms for cardiovascular disease and heart failure; however, the interaction and mechanism between them remain unclear. Investigating the role of PTP1B in angiotensin II (Ang II)–induced apoptosis of primary cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) may provide direct evidence of the link between endothelial cell apoptosis and RAAS. Isolated rat CMECs were treated with different concentrations of Ang II to induce apoptosis, and an Ang II concentration of 4 nM was selected as the effective dose for the subsequent studies. The CMECs were cultured for 48 h with or without Ang II (4 nM) in the absence or presence of the PTP1B inhibitor TCS 401 (8 μM) and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (10 μM). The level of CMEC apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activity. The protein expressions of […]

  • YKL-40/CHI3L1 facilitates migration and invasion in HER2 overexpressing breast epithelial progenitor cells and generates a niche for capillary-like network formation
    on September 3, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental event that is hijacked in some diseases such as fibrosis and cancer. In cancer, EMT has been linked to increased invasion and metastasis and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. In this study, we have compared phenotypic and functional differences between two isogenic cell lines with an EMT profile: D492M and D492HER2 that are both derived from D492, a breast epithelial cell line with stem cell properties. D492M is non-tumorigenic while D492HER2 is tumorigenic. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the expression profile of these cell lines, identify potential oncogenes, and evaluate their effects on cellular phenotype. We performed transcriptome and secretome analyses of D492M and D492HER2 and verified expression of selected genes at the RNA and protein level. One candidate, YKL-40 (also known as CHI3L1), was selected for further studies due to its differential expression between […]

  • The effect of extracellular matrix protein binding and culture confluence status on the effect of ROCK on TNF-α- and IL-1-stimulated CXCL8 secretion by colonic epithelial cell
    on September 3, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Colonic and intestinal epithelial cells (EC) attach to a basement membrane of laminins, fibronectin, and collagen IV. Wounding of the epithelial layer can change the types of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins to which the EC attach. In this study, we determined the effect of culturing Caco-2 cells on different ECM proteins on the capacity of EC to produce TNF-α- or IL-1-stimulated CXCL8. The effect of the ECM proteins was such that CXCL8 secretion by cells cultured on collagen I > collagen IV > fibronectin or laminin-111. However, suppression of ROCK activity resulted in a similar 75 to 85% suppression of CXCL8 secretion regardless of the ECM protein type. This suggests that EC can produce different levels of CXCL8 depending on the type of ECM proteins they attach to, but all cases result in a similar requirement for ROCK activity for optimal CXCL8 secretion. Furthermore, when confluent cells were compared to subconfluent cells, the level of […]

  • Small molecules re-establish neural cell fate of human fibroblasts via autophagy activation
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The generation of neural cells is of great interest in medical research because of its promising in neurodegenerative diseases. Small chemical molecules have been used for inducing specific cell types across lineage boundaries. Therefore, to direct neural cell fate, small molecule is a feasible approach for generating clinically relevant cell types without genetic alterations. Human fibroblasts have been directly induced into neural cells with different combinations of small molecules; however, the mechanism underlying neural induction is still not fully understood. In this study, human fibroblasts were induced into neural cells by using only 4 small molecules in a short time period, 5 d. Small molecules used in this study included WNT activator, DNMT inhibitor, Notch inhibitor, and retinoic acid. Neural-specific genes, including NESTIN, TUJ1, and SOX2, were upregulated upon the induction for 5 d. Noteworthy, this neural induction process by […]

  • S100A12 inhibits fibroblast migration via the receptor for advanced glycation end products and p38 MAPK signaling
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The migration of lung fibroblasts plays a pivotal role in wound repair and fibrotic processes in the lung. Although the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of lung diseases, its role in lung fibroblast migration is unclear. The current study examined the effect of three different RAGE ligands, namely, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), S100A12, and N-epsilon-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML), on human fibronectin-directed human fetal lung fibroblast (HFL-1) migration. HMGB1 augmented, whereas S100A12 inhibited, HFL-1 migration in a concentration-dependent manner. CML did not affect HFL-1 migration. The effect of HMGB1 was not through RAGE. However, the effect of S100A12 was mediated by RAGE, but not Toll-like receptor 4. S100A12 did not exert a chemoattractant effect, but inhibited HFL-1 chemotaxis and/or chemokinesis. Moreover, S100A12 mediated HFL-1 migration through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase […]

  • Protective effects of noradrenaline on benzo[a]pyrene-induced oxidative stress responses in brain tumor cell lines
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is generated during combustion of fossil fuels. We examine the effect of noradrenaline (NA) on B[a]P-induced neurotoxicity in brain tumor cell lines like neuroblastoma (Neuro2a) and glioma (C6). We pre-treated tumor cells with NA for 6 h, followed by addition of B[a]P for additional 24 h. Cell viability was measured using trypan blue dye-exclusion assay and comet assay was performed to measure DNA damage. Cell cycle status was analyzed using flow cytometry and oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) production was examined by immunostaining. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration was analyzed using Fura-2AM. Our results showed viability of Neuro2a and C6 cells declined (24% and 20%) in B[a]P-treated groups. However, pre-treating with NA increased viability of cells by reducing percentage of cell death in both. Furthermore, B[a]P-induced deregulation of cell cycle (G2/M and S phase cell […]

  • Long noncoding RNA FGD5-AS1 promotes colorectal cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion through upregulating CDCA7 via sponging miR-302e
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The biologic function as well as the mechanism of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) still remain largely unknown. Long noncoding RNA FGD5 antisense RNA 1 (FGD5-AS1) has been reported to have a promotive effect on other human cancers, but its function in CRC still remains unknown. The expression levels of long noncoding RNA FGD5-AS1, CDCA7 mRNA, and miR-302e were assessed by RT-qPCR. The protein levels of CDCA7 were assessed by Western blot. The function of FGD5-AS1 was detected using cell viability assay, 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay, transwell, and caspase-3 activity assay. Additionally, the microRNAs (miRNAs) sponge potential of FGD5-AS1 was examined by RNA immunoprecipitation assay, RNA pull-down assay, and luciferase reporter assay. FGD5-AS1 was increased in colorectal cancer cell lines compared to normal cell lines. Inhibition of FGD5-AS1 suppressed cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and accelerated cell […]

  • Genome mutation after the introduction of the gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) system into bovine putative zygotes
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of voltage strength on embryonic developmental rate and mutation efficiency in bovine putative zygotes during electroporation with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target the MSTN gene at different time points after insemination. Results showed that there was no significant interaction between electroporation time and voltage strength on the embryonic cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. However, increasing the voltage strength to 20 V/mm to electroporate the zygotes at 10 h after the start of insemination yielded significantly lower blastocyst formation rates (P < 0.05) than those of the 10-V/mm electroporated zygotes. Mutation efficiency was then assessed in individual blastocysts by DNA sequence analysis of the target sites in the MSTN gene. A positive correlation between mutation rate and voltage strength was observed. The mutation efficiency in mutant blastocysts was […]

  • Ultrastructural morphology is distinct among primary progenitor cell isolates from normal, inflamed, and cryopreserved equine hoof tissue and CD105 + K14 + progenitor cells
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The equine hoof dermal-epidermal interface requires progenitor cells with distinct characteristics. This study was designed to provide accurate ultrastructural depictions of progenitor cells isolated from inflamed tissue and normal tissue before and after cryopreservation and following selection of cells expressing both keratin (K) 14 (ectodermal) and cluster of differentiation (CD) 105 (mesodermal). Passage 3 cell ultrastructure was assessed following 2D culture and after 3D culture on decellularized hoof tissue scaffolds. Outcome measures included light, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, and CD105+K14+ cell trilineage plasticity. Cells from normal tissue had typical progenitor cell characteristics. Those from inflamed tissue had organelles and morphology consistent with catabolic activities including lysosomes, irregular rough endoplasmic reticulum, and fewer vacuoles and early endosomes than those from normal […]

  • ULK1 affects cell viability of goat Sertoli cell by modulating both autophagy and apoptosis
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Sertoli cells (SCs) are necessary for proper germ cell development and viability. Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase (ULK1) protein kinase is an important regulator of autophagy activation. This study aims to investigate the role of autophagy promoter ULK1 on cell viability of goat SCs. Our results showed that ULK1 knockdown in goat SCs decreased autophagy activation, which was confirmed by decreased expression of autophagy-related markers including LC3, Beclin1, Atg5, and Atg7 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, lower ULK1 levels resulted in decreased expressions of goat SC marker genes ABP, AMH, FASL, and GATA4. However, a reverse trend of these parameters occurred when the goat SCs were transfected with ULK1 overexpression construct; higher ULK1 levels in goat SCs also decreased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Moreover, ULK1 overexpression in goat SCs activated the autophagy levels when cells were exposed to an environmental contaminant bisphenol A […]

  • C1QTNF6 as a novel biomarker regulates cellular behaviors in A549 cells and exacerbates the outcome of lung adenocarcinoma patients
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (C1QTNF6) is a member of the CTRP family and implicated to cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory reaction, and adipogenesis. However, the function of C1QTNF6 in lung adenocarcinoma remains unknown. We downloaded the expression profiles of C1QTNF6 from TCGA database and Oncomine dataset in order to analyze the relationship between C1QTNF6 expression level and tumorigenesis by bioinformatics methods, such as chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression analysis. In addition, we performed experiments to investigate the biological function of C1QTNF6 on cancer cells in vitro. The siRNA strategy was conducted to decrease the C1QTNF6 expression and then Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay and wound-healing and transwell assays were to determine the proliferation, migration, and invasion. Western blot and qRT-PCR were used to confirm the expression levels. Based on the TCGA database and Oncomine dataset, we found that […]

  • 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation enhanced the suppressive function of mesenchymal stem cells against splenocyte proliferation
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The immunosuppressive function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is well known. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is widely expressed in several cells and is involved in various physiological and pathological processes. Previously, we found that the expression of AhR was downregulated in MSCs isolated from mice with neutrophilic asthma and that the activation of AhR enhanced the function of MSCs to alleviate neutrophilic asthma. We hypothesized that AhR activation enhanced MSCs for their immunosuppressive function. We aimed to investigate whether AhR activation can augment the suppressive function of MSCs against splenocyte proliferation. We co-cultured MSCs or AhR-activated MSCs with splenocytes at different ratios. The results showed that AhR activation in MSCs upregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), which promoted the production of nitric oxide (NO), thus enhancing the inhibitory effect […]

  • Site-specific integration of rotavirus VP6 gene in rabbit β-casein locus by CRISPR/Cas9 system
    on September 1, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in neonates and VP6 protein has been discussed as a potential candidate vaccine. CRISPR/Cas9 was the latest generation of gene editing tools that can mediate the site-specific knock-in of exogenous genes, providing strong support for the expression of recombinant proteins. Here, seeking to design a rotavirus vaccine that would be suitable for both mammary-gland-based production and milk-based administration, rabbit β-casein (CSN2) locus was chosen as the target site to integrate the VP6 gene. The efficiency of inducing mutations in different target sites of rabbit CSN2 locus was analyzed and g4 site seems to be the best one to generate mutations (g4 72.76 ± 0.32% vs g1 30.14 ± 1.93%, g2 38.53 ± 0.75%, g3 52.26 ± 1.16%, P < 0.05). We further compared the knock-in efficiency through cytoplasmic […]

  • SNHG14 promotes the tumorigenesis and metastasis of colorectal cancer through miR-32-5p/SKIL axis
    on August 30, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is regarded as one of the top ten malignant cancers, which has caused millions of mortalities all over the world. Although advanced therapeutic methods have been employed to treat CRC, the prognosis of CRC patients remains unsatisfactory. Many researchers claimed long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) frequently participate in the development of cancers. Small nucleolar RNA host gene 14 (SNHG14) was proved to play roles in various cancers. Nevertheless, neither biological function nor regulatory mechanism of SNHG14 has been explored in CRC. This investigation is aimed at exploring the role of SNHG14 in CRC. The expression of genes including SNHG14, miR-32-5p, and ski-oncogene-like (SKIL) was measured by RT-qPCR assay. 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay was employed to measure cell proliferation. Cell migration and invasion were evaluated by transwell assay. Western blot assay was performed to test the protein expression. The binding […]

  • Development of two brain cell lines from goldfish and silver crucian carp and viral susceptibility to Cyprinid herpesivirus-2
    on August 30, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Two cell lines were established from silver crucian carp and goldfish brain tissue and used as the biological tool for monitoring viral diseases. Characterization including optimal growth kinetics study, karyotyping, and mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genotyping were performed. The primary cultures of these cells were generated by the explant technique using the medium 199 supplemented with 20 % fetal bovine serum and epidermal/fibroblast growth factors. The cells grew over the range of 15 to 30°C, while the optimal temperature for culture was 30°C. The cell lines were maintained in vitro and could be subcultured over 40 times. Following cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, thawed cells exhibit viability of > 90 % after a 13-mo period of storage. The chromosome count of two cell lines were determined to be 154 and 110, respectively, which agreed well with triploid crucian carp brain cells and diploid goldfish brain cells. […]

  • Efficient generation of GHR knockout Bama minipig fibroblast cells using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing
    on August 27, 2019 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Dwarfism, also known as growth hormone deficiency (GHD), is a disease caused by genetic mutations that result in either a lack of growth hormone or insufficient secretion of growth hormone, resulting in a person’s inability to grow normally. In the past, many studies focusing on GHD have made use of models of other diseases such as metabolic or infectious diseases. A viable GHD specific model system has not been used previously, thus limiting the interpretation of GHD results. The Bama minipig is unique to Guangxi province and has strong adaptability and disease resistance, and an incredibly short stature, which is especially important for the study of GHD. In addition, studies of GHR knockout Bama minipigs and GHR knockout Bama minipig fibroblast cells generated using CRISPR/Cas9 have not been previously reported. Therefore, the Bama minipig was selected as an animal model and as a tool for the study of GHD in this work. In this study, a Cas9 plasmid […]

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