Recent Articles

3D Cell CultureBelow are the titles and abstracts from the most recent articles published in In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Animal. Click on the title to view the full article at Springerlink.


  • Irisin promotes the proliferation and tenogenic differentiation of rat tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells via activating YAP/TAZ
    on September 20, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Tendinopathy is a common tendon disorder characterized by pain, swelling, and dysfunction. Current evidence has demonstrated that the depletion of stem cell pool and non-tenogenic differentiation of tendon-derived stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) might account for the pathogenesis of tendinopathy. FNDC5/Irisin, as a novel exercise-induced myokine, is proved to be involved in the exercise-induced protective effects on musculoskeletal disorders. However, whether irisin can affect TSPCs fate is still unknown. To ascertain the roles of irisin on the proliferation and tenogenic differentiation of TSPCs, rat TSPCs were isolated and incubated with irisin. Cell viability, phenotypic changes, and related signaling pathways were evaluated by CCK-8 assay, colony formation assay, real-time PCR, Western blot, immunofluorescence, and proteasome activity assay. We found that irisin treatment increased the proliferative and colony-forming abilities, and promoted the tenogenic […]

  • TLR9/FCRL3 regulates B cell viability, apoptosis, and antibody and IL-10 production through ERK1/2, p38, and STAT3 signaling pathways
    on September 19, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract B cells play a role in the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS) and are closely related to Fc-receptor like-3 (FCRL3), but little is known about FCRL3 in B cells and MS. Activation of TLR9 in B cells with CpG found that CpG promoted FCRL3 expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. CpG significantly activated ERK1/2, p38, and STAT3 pathways, and FCRL3 overexpression further promoted the activation of these pathways, while FCRL3 siRNA significantly inhibited the activation of these pathways by CpG. CpG stimulation significantly promoted the viability of B cells, inhibited cell apoptosis, and enhanced the production of antibodies and secretion of IL-10 by B cells. FCRL3 siRNA blocked most of the above regulatory effects of CpG, but promoted the further production of antibodies by B cells. FCRL3 overexpression enhanced the pro-survival, anti-apoptotic, and IL-10-inducing effects of CpG, but inhibited the effect of CpG on promoting antibody production. […]

  • Effects of nylon mesh vitrification on the cytoskeleton, mitochondria, and aquaporins of mouse 2-cell embryos
    on September 8, 2022 at 12:00 am
  • miR-155-5p can be involved in acquisition of osseointegration on titanium surface
    on September 2, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Dental implants made of titanium are commonly used. Although titanium implants succeed by osseointegration with bone, the detailed molecular mechanism of osseointegration is unclear. To clarify the involvement of microRNA (miRNA) in the acquisition of osseointegration on titanium, here we compared the miRNA expression profiles of mouse osteoblast-like cells (MC3T3-E1) cultured on titanium-, gold-, and stainless steel–coating glass dishes by microarray analysis. Three kinds of metals, namely titanium, gold, and stainless steel, were coated on the surface of the glass dishes by sputtering with similar roughness and shape of their surface. After MC3T3-E1 cells were cultured on the dishes without coating or coating with titanium, gold, or stainless steel for 6 h, total RNA was extracted, and miRNA expression was analyzed by microarray. To confirm the expression of the selected miRNA during osteogenic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, real-time PCR […]

  • Role of Mydgf in the regulation of hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced apoptosis in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells
    on August 25, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We aimed to explore the effects of myeloid-derived growth factor (Mydgf) on the regulation of hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR)–induced apoptosis of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs). CMECs were exposed to hypoxia for 24 h and reoxygenation for 6 h to establish an HR cell model. Subsequently, an adenovirus was used to overexpress Mydgf in CMECs. Flow cytometry and TUNEL staining were used to detect the extent of apoptosis, whereas qPCR was used to detect the relative expression of Mydgf mRNA. Western blotting was also performed to detect the expression of apoptosis-related proteins and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)–related proteins, including C/EBP Homologous Protein (CHOP), glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP 78), and cleaved Caspase-12. The endoplasmic reticulum stress agonist tunicamycin (TM) was used to stimulate CMECs for 24 h as a rescue experiment for Mydgf. Flow cytometry revealed that the HR model effectively induced endothelial […]

  • VEGF-A promotes the motility of human melanoma cells through the VEGFR1–PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
    on August 23, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and its receptors (VEGFR1 and R2) play important roles in the progression of malignant melanoma through tumor angiogenesis. However, it is not clear whether the VEGF-A/VEGFR1 signaling pathway is involved in the proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. Thus, the effect of VEGF-A on cell migration was investigated in human melanoma cell lines. Of several splicing variants of VEGF-A, VEGF165 is the most abundant and responsible for VEGF-A biological potency. VEGF165 facilitated the migration of melanoma cells in both a chemotactic and chemokinetic manner, but cell proliferation was not affected by VEGF165. VEGF165 also induced the phosphorylation of Akt. In addition, VEGF165-induced cell migration was inhibited significantly by VEGFR1/2 or a VEGFR1-neutralizing antibody. Furthermore, the downregulation of VEGFR1 via the transfection of VEGFR1-targeting antisense oligonucleotides suppressed VEGF165-induced […]

  • A database of crop pest cell lines
    on August 22, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract We have developed an online database describing the known cell lines from Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Hymenoptera, and Lepidoptera that were developed from agricultural pests. Cell line information has been primarily obtained from previous compilations of insect cell lines. We conducted in-depth Internet literature searches and drew on Internet sources such as the Cellosaurus database (, and inventories from cell line depositories. Here, we report on a new database of insect cell lines, which covers 719 cell lines from 86 species. We have not included cell lines developed from Drosophila because they are already known from published databases, such as We provide the designation, tissue and species of origin, cell line developer, unique characteristics, its use in various applications, publications, and patents, and, when known, insect virus susceptibility. This information […]

  • Strongylopus grayii tadpole blastema extract exerts cytotoxic effects on embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells
    on August 10, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Amphibians have regenerative capacity and are resistant to developing cancer. This suggests that the developing blastema, located at the tissue regeneration site, may secrete anti-cancer factors. Here, we investigate the anti-cancer potential of tadpole tail blastema extracts (TAD) from the stream frog, Strongylopus grayii, in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) cells. ERMS originates in skeletal muscle tissue and is a common pediatric soft tissue sarcoma. We show using MTT assays that TAD inhibited ERMS cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, and phase contrast/fluorescent microscopy revealed that it induced morphological markers of senescence and apoptosis. Western blotting showed that this was associated with DNA damage (γH2AX) and activation of the p38/MAPK stress signaling pathway as well as molecular markers of senescence (p16INK4a), apoptosis (cleaved PARP), and inhibition of cell cycle promoters (cyclin A, CDK2, and cyclin B1). […]

  • Functional responses of dermal fibroblasts to low nutrition and pro-inflammatory stimuli mimicking a wound environment in vitro
    on August 10, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Dermal fibroblasts (DF) constitute one of key cells involved in wound healing. However, the functions they perform in wound conditions remain poorly understood. This study involved exposing DF to low nutrition and to low nutrition + LPS for 5 d as conditions representing the wound. Although DF exhibited increasing metabolic activity in time under all conditions including control, the proliferation did not change in both low nutrition and low nutrition + LPS. Only the low nutrition + LPS was found to potentiate the migration and pro-inflammatory phenotype (IL6 release) of DF. The potential of DF to contract collagen hydrogel declined only under low nutrition as a consequence of low cell number. The expression of α-SMA was reduced under both conditions independently of the cell number. The remodeling capability of DF was affected under both conditions as documented by the enhanced MMP2 activity. Finally, the production of collagen type I was not […]

  • Time matters: characterization of fibroblast-like cells harvested from pig profundus tendon stored at room temperature at different postmortem time intervals
    on August 4, 2022 at 12:00 am
  • Chloroquine regulates the proliferation and apoptosis of palate development on mice embryo by activating P53 through blocking autophagy in vitro
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Cleft lip and palate is one of the most frequent congenital developmental defects. Autophagy is a highly conserved process of cell self-degradation in eukaryotes, involving multiple biological processes in which chloroquine (CQ) is the most common inhibitor. However, whether CQ affects and how it affects palate development is unknown. Mouse embryonic palatal cells (MEPCs) were treated with CQ to observe cell viability, apoptosis, migration, osteogenic differentiation by cell proliferation assay, flow cytometric analysis, scratch assay, and alizarin red staining. PI staining was used to measure cell cycle distribution. Immunofluorescence (IF) assay and transmission electron microscopy were used to detect autophagosomes. The autophagy-related factors (LC3 and P62), apoptosis-related markers (P53, caspase-3 cleaved caspase-3, BAX, and BCL-2), and cell cycle–related proteins (P21, CDK2, CDK4, cyclin D1, and cyclin E) were all measured by western blot. […]

  • Comparative analysis of the survival and regeneration potential of juvenile and matured earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae, upon in vivo and in vitro maintenance
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Eudrilus eugeniae is a clitellum-dependent earthworm that requires intact clitellum segments for its survival and regeneration. The present study aims to interconnect the survival and regeneration ability that varies between in vivo and in vitro maintenance upon different sites of amputation. The amputated portion of the worm that possesses intact clitellum (13th–18th segments) survived and had the potential to regenerate, whereas worms with partial or without clitellum segments only survived and were unable to regenerate. Besides segment length and clitellum segments, clitellum factors also determined the survival, blastemal initiation and differentiation potential. The survivability and regeneration potential of worms were augmented upon in vitro maintenance. Notably, the amputated segments (1st–10th segments) and posterior segments of similar length, which usually die within the 4th day in vivo, survived for more than 60 days in vitro but lacked the […]

  • Low oxygen tension suppresses the death of chondrocyte-like ATDC5 cells induced by interleukin-1ß
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract The articular cartilage is an avascular tissue, and oxygen tensions in its superficial and deeper zones are estimated to be 6% and 1%. Degeneration of the articular cartilage begins from the surface zone in osteoarthritis. We previously reported that monocarboxylate transporter-1, a transmembrane transporter for monocarboxylates, played an essential role in the interleukin-1β-induced expression of NADPH oxidase-2, a reactive oxygen species–producing enzyme, and reactive oxygen species–dependent death of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells cultured in a normal condition (20% oxygen). Here, we investigated the effect of oxygen tension on interleukin-1β-induced events described above in ATDC5 cells. Interleukin-1β induced the death of ATDC5 cells under 20% and 6% oxygen but did not under 2% and 1% oxygen. Interleukin-1β induced Mct1 (monocarboxylate transporter-1 gene) and Nox2 (NADPH oxidase-2 gene) mRNAs’ expression under 20% oxygen in 24 h, […]

  • Use of lysates from pooled human mononuclear cells to activate CD3 T cells in humanized mice with low human cell engraftment efficiency
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract In regenerative medicine, humanized mice (hu-mice) are extremely valuable for verifying the cross talk between immune cells and therapeutic cells. Given the highly dynamic nature of the activities of immune cells, the in vitro platform does not allow for screening of their exact interactions with different therapeutic cells. By contrast, hu-mice have been widely applied for in vivo studies, especially those on immune rejection. However, the full reconstitution of lymphoid lineage cells in hu-mice remains to be realized. In this study, we investigated whether lysates from healthy donor-derived pooled mononuclear cells (MNCs) can promote the increase of lymphoid lineage cells in hu-mice. The pooled MNC lysate treatment of hu-mice possessing a low proportion of CD45 cells resulted in significant increases in CD3 cells and CD45 cells with the RO phenotype. The diverse epitopes from the pooled MNC lysates significantly induced the proportion of lymphoid lineage […]

  • ACOT7 protects epidermal stem cells against lipid peroxidation
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) are critical for skin regeneration and repair. Previous studies have shown that ESCs are susceptible to oxidative stress, which in turn leads to lipid peroxidation and affects skin repair. Our study aims to explore how ESCs resist lipid peroxidation. By performing proteomics analysis, we found that the expression of Acyl-CoA thioesterase 7 (ACOT7) was positively correlated with the concentration of transferrin. Overexpression adenovirus vectors of ACOT7 were constructed and transfected into ESCs. Levels of lipid peroxidation by flow cytometry, cell viabilities, and MDA levels were measured. The results revealed that ACOT7 could inhibit lipid peroxidation, reduce the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), and improve the survival rate of ESCs induced by H2O2, Erastin, and RSL3. Our data suggest that ACOT7 has an effect on protecting ESCs against iron-dependent lipid peroxidation.

  • Linoleic and linolenic acids reduce the effects of heat stress–induced damage in pig oocytes during maturation in vitro
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Elevated environmental temperatures can induce heat stress which could reduce fertility and early embryonic development. Fatty acids can initiate an endergonic reaction that absorbs cellular heat and decreases intracellular temperature. This study’s objective was to minimize heat stress–induced damage to in vitro matured oocytes by supplementing maturation media with either 50 μM linoleic or linolenic acid or both (25 or 50 μM) during maturation at either 38.5 or 41.5°C. Oocytes were evaluated for intracellular antioxidative pathways, fertilization characteristics, or early embryonic development. Elevated maturation temperatures increased (p < 0.05) reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and supplementation with linoleic or linolenic acid decreased (p < 0.05) ROS in oocytes matured at 41.5°C. Maturation temperature had an effect (p < 0.05) on the intracellular antioxidative pathways of the oocyte except for […]

  • G-protein-coupled receptor 124 promotes osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Osteoporosis occurs frequently in women after menopause and old age, and it is very easy to cause osteoporotic fractures, resulting in disability and death. In osteoporosis patients, the potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to differentiate into osteoblasts gradually is inhibited, leading to decreased new bone formation. In the current study, the potential effect of G-protein-coupled receptor 124 (GPR124) on the osteoblastic differentiation of BMSCs was determined. BMSCs were isolated and cultured in osteogenic media to induced osteogenic differentiation. Then, osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by Alizarin Red staining and ALP activity. The expression of osteogenic differentiation biomarkers, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling were determined by qRT-PCR and Western blotting. The results indicated that the expression of GPR124 was significantly increased during osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Moreover, GPR124 knockdown […]

  • miR-106b enhances human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation to spermatogonial stem cells under germ cell profile genes involved in TGF-b signaling pathways
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into tissue-specific cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the translation of mRNAs involved in the growth and development of a variety of cells, including primordial germ cells (PGCs). This study evaluated male germ cell differentiation from human MSCs by miR-106b. The MSCs were obtained from human adipose tissue. The differentiation of MSCs into PGCs was accomplished by transfection of a lentiviral vector expressing miR-106b. MSCs were treated with bone morphogenic factor 4 as a control and also as a putative inducer of PGC differentiation. PGC was differentiated into spermatogonial-like cells by retinoic acid. Moreover, Dazl, Plzf, Stra8, Gfra, and Thy1 gene expressions were investigated using real-time PCR. Our results showed that Dazl, Plzf, and Stra8 genes that were treated with BMP4 and miR-106b did not show any significant difference, meaning that miR-106b, like BMP4, is able to differentiate PGC […]

  • Comparative analysis of bilirubin glucuronidation activity in canine and human primary hepatocytes using a 3D culture system
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am

    Abstract Species differences in bilirubin glucuronidation activity are observed between humans and dogs through liver microsomes and recombinant UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. Humans exhibit higher activity than that of dogs. In this study, bilirubin glucuronidation activity was examined in canine and human primary hepatocyte spheroids formed using a 3D culture system. When spheroid development in canine and human primary hepatocytes was evaluated on days 7 and 14 after the start of culture, canine primary hepatocyte spheroids had a more distinct spherical shape than human hepatocyte spheroids, irrespective of the culture period. Furthermore, mono- and di-glucuronide generation detected in spheroids were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in human primary hepatocytes than in canine primary hepatocytes after 24 h of incubation with bilirubin for each culture period. These results suggest that there are species differences in the bilirubin glucuronidation […]

  • Correction to: 2022 In Vitro Biology Meeting, June 4–7, San Diego California
    on August 1, 2022 at 12:00 am
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