Distinguishing between ante factum and post factum properties of animal cell lines and demonstrating their use in grouping ray-finned fish cell lines into invitromes

Niels Bols

Lucy Lee

Georgina Dowd

In this review, animal cell lines are considered to have two classes of attributes: “before-the-fact” (ante factum) and “after-the-fact” (post factum) properties. Fish cell lines from Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes) are used to illustrate this distinction and to demonstrate how these properties can be used in various ways to categorize cell lines into groups or invitromes. Before-the-fact properties are set at initiation and are properties of the sample and species from which the cell line arose and of the scientist(s) who developed the cell line. On the basis of the Actinopterygii sample, invitromes exist for embryos, larvae, juveniles, adults, and spawning fish, and for most solid organs but rarely for biological fluids. For species, invitromes exist for only a small fraction of the Actinopterygii total. As to their development, scientists from around the world have contributed to invitromes. By contrast, after-the-fact properties are limitless and become apparent during development, characterization, use, and storage of the cell line. For ray-finned invitromes, cell lines appear to acquire immortality during development, are characterized poorly for differentiation potential, have numerous uses, and are stored formally only sporadically. As an example of applying these principles to a specific organ, the skeletal muscle invitrome is used. For ante factum properties, the cell lines are mainly from trunk muscle of economically important fish from 11 orders, 15 families, 19 genera, and 21 species of ray-finned fishes. For post factum properties, fibroblast-like and myogenic cell lines have been described but epithelial-like FHM is most widely used and curated. Considering cell lines by their before- and after-the-fact properties should facilitate integration of new cell lines into the literature and help incorporate the discipline of cell biology into other research areas, particularly the natural history of fishes.

Niels Bols, Lucy Lee, and Georgina Dowd. Distinguishing between ante factum and post factum properties of animal cell lines and demonstrating their use in grouping ray-finned fish cell lines into invitromes. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology-Animal 59:41-62, 2023.


Kiran Bamel, Department of Botany, Shivaji College (University of Delhi)

Rajendra Gupta, Department of Botany, University of Delhi, Delhi (retired

The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is present in all living organisms, including plants, where it is reported to be involved in a wide range of physiological functions. Our previous work employing tomato leaf cultures has demonstrated that (a) acetylcholine promote root formation and suppresses callus and shoot formation, (b) nicotine, an agonist of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor mimics the action of acetylcholine, (c) increasing the endogenous level of acetylcholine – by inhibition of acetylcholine hydrolysing enzyme acetylcholinesterase — simulates the physiological response to acetylcholine. In the present work, we studied the effect of blocking acetylcholine biosynthesis by inhibiting choline acetyltransferase. Leaf explants harvested from 30-d-old tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. variety Pusa Ruby) seedlings were cultured on media fortified with juglone, an inhibitor of acetylcholine biosynthesis. Juglone concentrations ranging from 10−9 to 10−3 M were used to check the dose response. Juglone significantly inhibited rooting and caused transition from rhizogenesis to caulogenesis at 10−7 to 10−6 M. Supplementation of different levels of juglone to the shoot regeneration medium enhanced the shoot formation and callus amounts, exhibiting best response at 10−5 M. This study shows that juglone causes effects that are opposite of the effects of acetylcholine. Our study provides another evidence for the presence of all the components of a functional acetylcholine system (acetylcholine receptor, acetylcholine biosynthesis and acetylcholine hydrolysis) in tomato. It also provides an insight into the mechanism of allelopathic action of juglone through the plant cholinergic system. It establishes that acetylcholine is a plant growth regulator in tomato.

Kiran Bamel and Rajendra Gupta. Juglone promotes shooting and inhibits rooting in leaf explants of in vitro raised tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. var. Pusa Ruby) seedlings. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Plant: 42–949, 2022.


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